I fostered a little of puppies not long ago and they would follow the cats around,tugging on their tails,fir,ears...etc,etc (much like a toddler).My cats are used to dogs though,so there were no problems.But just putting it out there,a puppy will want to play with the cat.
If you get a puppy though,he/she would grow up around the cat and therefore should learn not to be aggressive to the cat.Your cat is still young,so it could work.As long as there are hiding spots and rooms where your cat could get away from the puppy if he annoys the cat.
I do believe it is a possibility.People have adopted adult dogs from our rescue with cats and it usually works out.The cat won't accept the dog instantly though.Keep in mind it could take weeks,months or even years (as in the case with my mom's cat and sister's dog...and the cat still don't like the dog,but they live peacefully now) for the cat to even accept that the dog is living there.
However if your cat has a dominant,aggressive personality...I would pass on the idea.
I would keep them separated the first week, and I would have some things in the living room that would smell like the puppy so that my cat would get used to the puppys smell
And I would have some things that smells like my cat in the room the puppy would be, so that my puppy would get used to the cats smell
I think it's easier to make my cat accept a puppy. If the puppy is a small breed.
If I get a puppy, I would let it walk around in the apartment when my cats are outside, so that when the cats came back inside, the apartment would smell like the puppy, and they would get used to the smell.
Animals often use smells to recognize each other, so I thought that if my cats would get used to the "puppysmell", they would accept the puppy.
Don't u think so?
(sorry for my bad English