I have had some success with pennies or stones in a can and shaking it loudly. Also, I have six kitties and one kitty was determined to use my couch as her scratching post. Unfortunately she has done damage to it. It does help to get her used to having periodic manicures on her front paws. Get the vet to show you how to do it if you don't know how.
Rainbow, Abbles, Carmy, Kissy, Peaches, Cream, (kitties) and Littlebunny boy (elder bunny)
the pic is the last one of my meecee kitty (5/9/89 - 1/9/08)